Who are the parents of a clone produced in a laboratory? Neither has it been sought explicitly as a tool for genetic control or "enhancement" of human offspring.
Cloning would be the first instance in which parents could select in advance the precise or nearly precise genetic makeup of their child, by selecting the donor to be cloned. Each child thus stems from and unites exactly two lineages, lines that trace backward in similar branching fashion for ages.
Thus only through a serious reflection on these broader questions can the full meaning of human cloning be discovered. Among the important aspects of the topic are these: A full discussion of our choice of terminology is provided in Chapter Three.
Much of the time, most of us tend to take for granted this central aspect of human life, through which all of us come to be and through which we give birth to our posterity. While we are more "what we choose to become" than we are "where we came from," our human beginnings matter, biologically, psychically, and socially.
Every single bit of their DNA is identical. In Chapter Three we discuss the terminology of the cloning debate. We consider various options for government action, and present arguments for and against each.
Reproductive cells are also called germ cells. Human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not commercially used; animals are currently cloned in laboratories and in livestock production. We attempt to clarify what cloning is, where the science stands, and where it may be going.
We limit what scientists can do only in certain cases, as when their research requires the use of human subjects, in which case we erect rules and procedures to protect the health, safety, and dignity of the weak from possible encroachments by the strong.
What do these differences mean for the cloned child, for family relations, and for relations across the generations? But the experiments of Nazi Germany and the resulting Nuremberg Trials and Code taught us long ago that there is some knowledge that we must not pursue if it requires the use of immoral means to get it.
Scientific work is also restricted from activities that might harm the health of the general public, and from producing products that may endanger consumers. Practically all public discussion of the ethics of human cloning has, whether expressly or not, proceeded on this same premise, and rightly so.
Chapter Four summarizes selected aspects of the current state of the relevant science and technology. Opinions on this subject will of course differ, sometimes widely, as they rest on possibly differing perceptions of human procreation and family life.
Or they can be made in the lab. The challenge for our society is to determine, through public deliberation and thoughtful reflection, how best to adjudicate between these two desires and to determine what form to give to the tacit agreement between society and science, by which society promises freedom within bounds, and science affords us innovation, knowledge, and power while respecting reasonable limits.
Yet the following basic observations, concerns, and questions seem pertinent, notwithstanding possible differences of opinion among us about how much weight to give them.
They have been central to the recent and continuing controversy about federal funding of research on human embryonic stem cells, because human embryos produced by IVF offer possibilities for medical advances, beyond their use in assisted reproduction.
These factors send signals in the mature cell that cause the cell to become a pluripotent stem cell. But it is to propel us, perhaps unstopably, in that direction. When scientists clone an organism, they are making an exact genetic copy of the whole organism, as described above.
For several decades now, building on advances in genetics, cell biology, and developmental biology, and on technologies used first in animal husbandry, scientists around the world have been adapting techniques and developing tools to study, influence, and manipulate the origins of human life.
Some want to outlaw it, and many nations have done so. Though they are our children, they are not our property.
Our society has come to a near-total agreement on the need for such an agency and the importance of its work. For that, normal sexual reproduction is the appropriate basis of comparison.
The established reproductive technologies do provide some useful points of comparison, but they cannot be taken as the most helpful baseline for understanding the significance of cloning. Watch these videos of enucleation and nuclear transfer. Yet God calls us and enables us to be more--to love God and to love our neighbors as ourselves.
In Chapter Four we present a survey of the scientific aspects of human and animal cloning. The problem here is not the mere fact that technology is involved.An explanation of cloning and its use in agriculture.
Even though farmers have been able to improve their herds over time, they still can’t absolutely predict the. Intellectual Property and Bioethics – An Overview Consultation Draft Life Sciences Series 1.
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 2 Ethical aspects of seeking exclusive IP rights over a technology 16 Ethical aspects of exercising exclusive rights over a technology 17 raises concerns over equitable access to. Many people first heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in Artificial cloning technologies have been around for much longer than Dolly, though.
This cloning technique, which I will refer to as “somatic cell nuclear transfer,” is an extension of research that had been going on for over 40 years with nuclei derived from nonhuman embryonic and fetal cells. The report will discuss the science of cloning, and the ethical and legal considerations of applications of cloning technology.
It will also set out recommendations to the legislature regarding regulation of human cloning. and how these apply to human reproductive cloning. Given current safety concerns about cloning, she was in favor of a. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical Some opponents of reproductive cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to (President George W.
Bush in and ), over therapeutic cloning prevented either competing proposal (a ban on both forms or on reproductive cloning only) from being.Download